Recombinat Growth Hormone Immersion Method Approach to Accelerate Shrimp or Prawn Production. A Good News for Farmers
Written by : Raditya Prihardianto / @radityapwr
Marine Conservation Analyst
Giant fresh water prawn Macrobranchium-rosenbergii is a quiet expensive aquaculture commodity with a price range between IDR 60.000 to IDR 75.000. National production of this commodity in 2010 reached 1400 tons. The market opportunity is still relatively high because the national demand is about 20 tons/day ( Ministry of Marine and Fisheries of Republic Indonesia, 2014).
This commodity has a big prospect to develop but there are some obstacles in culture process, such as the production time is longer than marine shrimp, it takes about 4-6 months till it is ready to consume. If this process can be accelerated, the production will be higher.
“So? How can we accelerated the production?”
Before we talk about the method to accelerated the production, we need to know the existing method that used by most people.
“The culture method mostly used is the extensive method, applied technology on the media engineering, for example by using shelter on the pond”
An extensive method is a method to increase the productivity by expanding the pool or the land. But this method is quite expensive to be applied, because we need more space and extra cost to build the structure.
“We need another solution on this problem”
Another technology that can be applied to improve the productivity is genetic engineering using recombinant growth hormone (rGH). rGH is a protein produced by bioreactor such as Escherichia coli which brings expression vector growth hormone gene (Subaedah 2013).
“rGH application is more profitable and safer than trans genetic because it does not change the genetic structure.”
It can be applied by injection, immersion and orally or by feeding. But immersion method is the most effective to use because it can minimize the feed leaching and stress (Ratnawati P, 2012).
“Immersion method on rGH application is considered as the most effective method because it can reduce the stress”
There are a lot of report that shown that this method is effective. Some researchers using immersion method show the improvement of growth significantly.
One of the example research that shown improvement of growth was conducted for Giant Fresh Prawn is shown by this report.
The report says, the Post larval giant fresh prawn was immersed by using rElGH. Post larval used were PL-35 with the initial weight of 0.004 grams and the initial length of 1.1 cm, with 30 individuals were randomly taken for each replication with the total treatment of 1000 PL.
Giant fresh water prawn seeds were fasted for about 12 hours before immersion treatment. Seeds were immersed in saline solution 30 g/L NaCl (salinity shock) for 2 minute and were then put into water containing rElGH appropriate treatment dose.
Total treatment was 12 weeks.
“The immersion with rElGH of shrimp and prawn need appropriate treatment dose”
And the result was great
The result, after 12 weeks prawns with 15 mg/L of rElGH showed the best result of growth. Also, the body legth growth generally increased during maintenance process. The result also showed that treatment with 15mg/L had the best body length.
Unfortunately, rElGH method did not influence the survival rate. Some factors that influenced survival rate were water quality, immunity, disease intervention (Laksana 2012) and cannibalism when the prawn was molting.
“Is this method similar with genetically modified organisms (GMO)? “
Prawn fed recombinant growth hormone is not the genetically modified organism (GMO) because the nature of the rGH does not last long in the body and is also not revealed by an organism. Therefore, it is necessary to give the rGH back to the organism when the rGH effective in the body declines.
“The use of the immersion method to prawn larvae is more efficient because it is easier and more practical to do, quicker for mass treatment and could minimize stress.”
Immersion technology of rElGH on post larval giant fresh water prawn was more applicable if done in the field by farmers than by injection methods because the process would be faster and more economical for mass scale.
The applications using rElGH on prawn are expected to increase productivity by accelerating the growth, and can increase the revenue of the farmers as well.